01_over02_over03_overpkimg-youAs the sciences, particularly biological science, were a dominant element of my youth and studies, when I started sculpting it was not surprising that my initial interest was in representing the human form as realistically as possible. I wanted to capture how people moved and held themselves. Hard wood was my chosen material as it was easy enough to carve and allowed fine details. (Pregnant Woman) However the grain of wood influences the appearance of the sculpture; the curves makes shapes have more volume and the lines lead one’s eye around the form. (Up or Down) To take advantage of these strengths, I had to reduce the detail and simplify the way I represented the anatomy of the figure. (Iron Man)

04_over05_over06_overUnfortunately wood has weaknesses too; cracking, lack of tensile strength and the limit of the sizes of the blocks. To get the final product I wanted, I started casting in bronze, initially using the wood as the original for the master mould (Dancing Torso) but soon switching to creating the originals in plaster over a chicken wire and steel armature. In addition to getting a smooth surface and allowing attenuated forms, I was now creating a shape in unlimited space rather than carving out of a defined volume. (Somersault) The construction process encouraged expanded gestures and more open poses, while the solidity of the surface required sharper lines and bolder abstractions of the anatomy to compensate for the lack of grain. (Waiting Torso)

07_over08_overIn Paris I encountered a much stronger chicken wire and I realized (from trying to paint, rather unsuccessfully) that surfaces did not have to be continuous and solid and that forms could appear to float in space. Instead of a solid volume representing the human figure, I could use half forms and let the eye finish the shape. I could create holes which exposed the interior and use it to add meaning to the gesture and energy of the sculpture.(Leaping Torso) And I could use untraditional, partial figures which focused on the essentials of the movement I was portraying. (Discus Thrower I, II, III) With these thoughts in mind and taking advantage of the stronger chicken wire, I now had more stylistic tools while I continued to explore what could be expressed with the human body.

11_over10_over09_overI started to use the same chicken wire and steel as support but covered it instead with wax layers to make the casting surface. In this case once the wax was built up to a sufficient thickness, the armature was removed and the wax was cast directly in bronze. (Building Momentum video) Using this process which eliminates master moulding, I could make complex, interwoven or overlapping sculptures. (Spiralling Down and Momentum) And I could build a figure by using separate, intersecting shapes which add up to a whole sculpture.(Teetering)

12_over13_overOne limitation of bronze casting is that there is no possibility of scaling up works without remaking the original. To get around this I made drawings that when rendered into a computer file could be used to laser or water jet cut shapes in a variety of materials like aluminium, bronze, steel, plywood or polycarbonates. (Spring for the Negev) Now each sculpture could be scaled to the size desired for any site. Not satisfied with forms that were essentially two dimensional, I am finding ways to combine the shapes to make completely three-dimensional forms. (Prop)

15_over14_overUsing so many new materials has inspired me to try other construction techniques. Not only have I started combining other materials with cast bronze (Undecided), I find science coming back into my work as I use a suggestion of molecules to express the human form. (Explorer) Each new method and material has inspired me to develop more ways to articulate and represent the human form and to progress in the expression of human movement, energy and spirit.


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